Running a Business in Poland: Understanding Polish Company Types

Poland boasts one of the largest and most robust economies in Central Europe. The business-friendly country attracts over €10 billion in FDI annually. Poland’s dynamic market features companies across all major industries.

For entrepreneurs looking to launch or expand a venture in Poland, familiarity with the available business structures is key. This guide outlines the primary company types in Poland:

Spółka z ograniczoną odpowiedzialnością (Sp. z o.o.)

A spółka z ograniczoną odpowiedzialnością (Sp. z o.o.) is Poland’s most popular company structure, similar to an LLC. It limits owner liability to capital contributions, with a minimum of 5,000 PLN.

Spółka Akcyjna (S.A.)

A spółka akcyjna (S.A.) functions like a public limited company. Shareholders have limited liability, and shares are freely transferable. The high 100,000 PLN minimum capital makes it better for large, established companies.

Prosta Spółka Akcyjna (P.S.A.)

A prosta spółka akcyjna (P.S.A.) is a simplified S.A. form requiring only 1 PLN minimum capital. But it limits transferability of shares and total shareholders.

Spółka Partnerska (S.P.)

Professionals like lawyers and doctors often choose a spółka partnerska (S.P.) structure. At least two partners perform a “free profession” but have unlimited personal liability.

Spółka Cywilna (S.C.)

A spółka cywilna (S.C.) is a civil law partnership with at least two owners, similar to a general partnership with unlimited liability. It’s easy to establish but also dissolve.

Spółka Jawna (Sp.J.)

A spółka jawna (Sp.J.) is a “registered partnership” offering unlimited liability for at least two partners. Sp.Js must register with Poland’s National Court Register.

Sole Proprietorship

A sole proprietorship is the simplest structure with no separate legal entity. The owner has unlimited personal liability.

With various company types available, choosing the optimal structure to register your business in Poland can be challenging. The experts at offer experienced guidance on selecting the best match based on your objectives and needs – whether an Sp. z o.o, S.A, sole proprietorship or other form.

Our team assists international clients with complete company formation and registration in Poland. We handle all legal, tax and administrative aspects while you focus on building your successful venture. With decades of experience helping expats, investors and entrepreneurs smoothly establish companies in Poland, rely on our expertise for a seamless setup.

Contact today to discuss the ideal business structure for you and get your Polish company registered quickly and efficiently.


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